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1. Oil and Gas Technology

The techniques, expertise, and processes used to extract and refine crude oil and natural gas, as well as edible oil from edible crop seeds, are referred to as oil technology. Different technologies exist for extracting crude oil, gas, and edible oil, and new inventions are constantly improving them. Oil technologies are always being upgraded in order to raise well production rates, increase gross margins, and maximize the use of natural resources by employing chemical and environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery techniques.

Natural gas is a complex blend of hydrocarbon-rich gases. All of these gases (methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and so on) are found in the atmosphere naturally. Natural gas reserves are found near other solid and liquid hydrocarbons such as coal and crude oil, deep inside the earth. Natural gas is not consumed in its natural state; it is processed and turned into a cleaner fuel.

  • Oil and Gas Field Optimization
  • Oil & Gas Markets and Supply Chain Economic Analysis
  • Corrosion in Upstream Facilities
  • Oil Spill Occurrence, Monitoring, Clean Up Methods, Contingency Plans
  • Gasoline from Natural Gas/Coal Liquid, Biorefining, Biofuels
  • Enhanced Oil & Gas Recovery (EOR & EGR)
  • Natural Gas Liquids
  • Natural Gas Processing
3. Biorefinery, Biofuels and Bioenergy

A biorefinery can be stated as a facility that incorporates biomass conversion methods and equipment to produce fuels, electricity, and value-added chemicals. Biorefineries are similar to today's petroleum refineries, which create a variety of fuels and products from crude oil. Biorefineries and bio-based products are essential for lowering global emissions and decarbonizing our energy systems. Biorefineries can assist in maximizing the energy potential of organic wastes while also addressing waste management and greenhouse gas emissions issues.

Energy demand is predicted to rise significantly in the next few years, and it is commonly acknowledged that alternative, sustainable solutions will be required to meet those demands. Biofuel works in the same way as nonrenewable fossil fuels do.

Bioenergy is energy produced from plant and animal organic matter, such as agricultural and forest residues, energy crops, wood, and organic wastes. Bioenergy accounts for about ten percent of total global energy demand. Bioenergy development offers a great opportunity to diversify agricultural production systems while reducing GHG emissions and achieving fossil-fuel independence.

  • Biomass Feedstock
  • Mechanical Pretreatment
  • Biological Pretreatment
  • Thermo- / Heat-Based Pretreatment
  • Chemical Pretreatment
  • Bio-Ethanol
  • Bio-Butanol
  • Biodiesel
  • Hydrocarbon Biofuel
5. Geochemistry of Oil Gas and Petroleum

Geochemistry is the study of the chemistry of natural earth materials as well as the chemical processes that occur both now and in the past within and upon the Earth. Geochemistry is crucial to our understanding of the processes that result in economic mineral concentrations, whether they are caused by hydrothermal, magmatic, metamorphic, hydraulic (both surface and underground), weathering, or a combination of these. Geochemistry plays a significant role in exploration as well. Many of the variables that control the volumes of crude oil and natural gas available for entrapment, such as richness and quality, thermal maturity, source-rock distribution, and the timing of generation-migration-accumulation relative to trap formation, are accounted for by petroleum geochemistry, which improves exploration efficiency.

  • Geochemical Characteristics
  • Surface Geochemistry
  • Geochemical Studies
7. Geomechanics of Oil Gas and Petroleum

The application of geomechanics to oil and gas field development improves the asset's economic performance significantly. The geomechanical challenges that affect field development begin during exploration and continue to influence appraisal and development decisions until the field is abandoned. Geomechanics is the study of how underlying rocks deform or fail in reaction to stress, pressure, and temperature changes, and it's becoming more significant in oil and gas development. Geomechanics is the study of the mechanical behavior of geological materials, both theoretically and practically. It is utilized to mitigate risks and maximize profits associated with reservoir and surrounding formation mechanical failure as a result of oil and gas exploration and production activities.

  • Geological Energy Production and Storage
  • Mechanics of Porous Media
  • Pour Fluid Mechanics
  • Analysis and Design Aspects of Geomechanics
  • Geoengineering and Soil and Rock Mechanics
9. Origin, Accumulation and Production of Petroleum and Natural Gas

Oil and gas are made up of prehistoric plant and animal remains. Plant remains have been converted to coal, and animal remains have been converted to oil and gas. These relics sank into the waters, accumulating on the ocean floor and becoming buried behind many kilometers of sediments. There are two types of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the crust: conventional and unconventional. Oil and gas exploration and development in the world has progressed from conventional to unconventional reservoirs.

The study of hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics is crucial element of oil and gas geology research because it can suggest the formation and enrichment of oil and gas. It is also crucial for oil and gas exploration and development. Unconventional oil and gas resources (such as tight gas) are becoming a larger part of global energy consumption, and their accumulation process is more complex than conventional oil and gas.

The process of extracting hydrocarbons and sorting the mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, gas, water, and particles, removing non-saleable ingredients, and selling the liquid hydrocarbons and gas is known as production. Petroleum production entails extracting crude oil and, in many cases, accompanying natural gas from the Earth.

  • Conventional Resources
  • Unconventional Resources
  • Accumulations of Oil, Gas, and Water Mixtures
  • Accumulations by The Cementation of The Reservoir Rocks
  • Accumulations on The Permeability of The Reservoir Rocks
  • Gravitational Accumulations
11. Reservoir Engineering, Simulation and Rock Mechanics

During the past decade, reservoir engineering has progressed considerably. The oil and gas sector are spacing wells wider, unitizing wells early, and recovering a higher percentage of the oil in place. Reservoir engineering's goal is to give the facts, information, and expertise needed to govern operations and get the most out of a reservoir for the least amount of money. The physics of oil and gas distribution and flow through porous rocks—the numerous hydrodynamic, gravitational, thermodynamic, and other forces involved in the rock-fluid system is of concern to reservoir engineers.

Reservoir simulation is a useful tool for efficiently solving difficult reservoir engineering problems. Reservoir Simulation is a branch of petroleum engineering that employs porous medium in computer modelling to estimate fluid dynamics with the purpose of predicting field performance under various production strategies.

Geomechanics is a broader scientific area that examines the mechanical behavior of all earth materials, including soils. Rock mechanics is a subset of geomechanics. Rock mechanics is the study of the mechanical behavior of rocks, both theoretically and practically. It's the branch of mechanics that studies how rock responds to the force fields in its physical environment.

  • Flow Models for Reservoir Simulation
  • Upstream Oil & Gas
  • Pure and Applied Rock Mechanics
  • Tectonics and Seismology
  • Reservoir System and Mechanics
  • Performance Curve
  • Procedure & Complexity
  • Reservoir Characterization
13. Oil and Gas Reserves

An estimate of the amount of crude oil in a given economic region is known as oil reserves. Oil reserves must be able to be extracted under present technological limits in order to qualify. Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, and Canada are the top three oil-producing countries in the world. According to estimations, the world's oil reserves are projected to exceed 1.73 trillion barrels.

A complex blend of gaseous hydrocarbons makes up natural gas reserves. Natural gas reserves are substantial amounts of natural gas that are thought to exist with a high degree of certainty based on geological surveys and engineering research. These reserves are not only known to exist, but they are also accessible and economically viable to extract. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, with minor amounts of ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and other higher hydrocarbons contributing to its calorific value. Dry gas, wet gas, and gas-condensate are the three types of natural gas reserves found in conventional gas fields (non associated gas).

  • Oil and Gas Reserves Data
  • Reserve Policy and Pricing
  • Oil and Gas Production in Reserve
15. Compaction and Diagenesis

When sedimentary rocks are subjected to stresses, compaction occurs, resulting in a reduction in the volume of the rock. Land subsidence is a common cause of this occurrence. Both events are necessary for the production of sedimentary rocks and the creation of hydrocarbons. Compaction occurs when pressure and fluid production are reduced, resulting in a reduction in the volume of a reservoir. The majority of oil and gas reserves will only experience minor compaction, and the resulting sinking at the surface will be minimal.

The physical and chemical processes that impact sedimentary materials after deposition and before metamorphism, as well as between deposition and weathering, are referred to as diagenesis. Diagenetic processes have progressive influence on rock qualities such as porosity and lithification degree. It is important for maintaining the quality of a reservoir within a trap. As soon as sediment is deposited, diagenesis begins.

  • Sediment Compaction and Applications
  • Reservoir Compaction
  • Compaction and Subsidence Issues
  • Reservoir Quality
  • Factors That Influence Diagenesis
  • Compaction Control on Diagenesis
17. Pipeline Transportation and Storage

Long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas over a network of pipes—a pipeline—to a market location for consumption is known as pipeline transport. Steel or plastic tubes are used to construct oil pipelines, which are normally buried. Oil is transported through pipelines by pump stations located along the route. Natural gas (and other gaseous fuels) is compressed into liquids called Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs). Carbon steel is used to construct natural gas pipelines. When compared to road or rail, pipelines are one of the safest ways to carry materials.

Natural gas, like the majority of other commodities, can be stored indefinitely. Natural gas exploration, production, and transportation take time, and the gas that arrives at its destination isn't necessarily needed straight away, so it's pumped into underground storage facilities. Depleted gas reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground storage

  • The Gathering System
  • The Interstate Pipeline System
  • The Distribution System
  • Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
  • Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Tanks
  • Depleted Gas Reservoirs
  • Types of Storage
19. Quality Testing, Evaluation and Specifications

Crude oil is produced in a variety of types all around the globe. The market value of a crude stream is determined by its quality attributes. Density and sulphur content are two of the most essential quality parameters. The study of conventional and shale gas, LNG, and other hydrocarbon condensates and components are all part of natural gas testing. Impurities in natural gas are tested to trace detection levels in laboratories. Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, mercury, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur, water, and other trace contaminants can be found in natural gas. Buyers without crude oil assays risk a plethora of concerns, including mechanical failures, quality control challenges, and environmental violations. Testing for crude oil quality also assures that producers are adhering to industry requirements.

  • Crude Oil Quality Control Tests
  • Analyzing Crude Oil Quality
  • Analytical Methods
21. Subsurface Analysis

Studying the Earth's subsurface structures has been and remains an important part of a variety of applications, including environmental monitoring, carbon sequestration, and oil and gas development. Researchers were able to learn by applying advanced image processing and computer vision algorithms to successfully assess and understand Earth's subsurface structures by viewing seismic volumes generated through the processing of recorded seismic traces. A variety of geophysical techniques are utilized to learn more about what is beneath the surface. The most popular technique is seismic imaging, which involves measuring variations in the Earth's gravity and magnetic field.

  • Image Processing and Computer Vision
  • Challenges in Seismic Interpretation
  • Machine Learning Algorithms
  • Geophysical Methods of Subsurface Exploration
  • Seismic Imaging
23. Renewable Energy

Renewable energy comes from naturally renewing but flow-limited sources; renewable resources are nearly limitless in terms of length but have a finite amount of energy per unit of time. Renewable energy is derived from sources that can be regenerated or replenished spontaneously. Electricity is generated using all renewable energy sources. When it comes to greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy sources are classified as zero (wind, solar, and water), low (geothermal), or neutral (biomass). In the future decades, renewable energy will play a critical role in decarbonizing our energy systems.

  • Biomass (biofuel and biopower)
  • Geothermal (power and heating)
  • Solar (power and hot water)
  • Water (hydropower and hydrokinetic)
  • Wind
25. Formation Evaluation (Well Logging) & Well Engineering

Formation evaluation is used in petroleum exploration and development to determine a borehole's ability to produce petroleum. It is essentially the process of "recognizing a commercial well when drilling one." The investigation of subsurface formation properties such as lithology, porosity, permeability, and saturation using methods like wireline well logging and core analysis is known as formation evaluation.

Pore pressure, kick tolerance, casing functions, casing design, and cementing are the main components of well engineering. Drilling and petroleum engineering are sometimes addressed.

Well engineers can experiment with different methods of drilling into oil reservoirs to ensure that all available reserves are extracted. A well engineer is a licensed professional who designs, constructs, and maintains oil and gas wells.

  • Formation Evaluation Tools
  • Coring
  • Mud Logging
  • Wireline Logging
  • Electric Logs
  • Porosity Logs
  • Lithology Logs - SP And Gamma Ray
  • Challenges Faced by Well Engineers
27. Petroleum Engineering and Economics

Petroleum engineering is an area of engineering concerned with the processes that enable the development and extraction of crude oil and natural gas fields, as well as the technical study, computer modelling, and prediction of future production performance. Petroleum engineering is concerned with determining a field's reserves, petroleum distribution within the reservoir, and the most efficient method of producing it.

The entire oil/gas generating sector is driven by economics. Almost every decision is made based on a cost-benefit analysis. For publicly traded corporations, economic evaluations are also done to estimate reserves and the "standardized measure of worth" for reporting purposes. Petroleum economics entails the use of economic analysis tools at all stages of the development of oil and gas exploration and production projects.

  • Petroleum Geology
  • Petrophysics
  • Petroleum Chemistry
  • Petroleum Reservoir
  • Petroleum Production, Storage and Transport
  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • Recent Advancement in Petroleum Industry
29. Computational and Mathematical Modelling

The idea of implementing mathematical modelling to optimize oil and gas production dates back to the 1960s. Many analytic computer tools for studying real-world problems are available in mathematical modelling. Mathematical and computer models enable researchers to investigate complicated systems and natural phenomena that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive, risky, or impossible to investigate through direct investigation. EOR simulations use mathematical and computer models to develop ideal experiments, lowering oil production costs and times. An optimization strategy for increasing gas output from natural gas reserves has been presented. The approach is based on a mathematical model.

  • Mathematical Models for Oil Reservoir Simulation
  • Experiment Validation
  • Computational Tools
31. Global Warming, Environmental & Pollution Issues

The term "global warming" refers to a gradual rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which is thought to be irreversibly altering the planet's climate. The Earth is warming, and humans are to blame for at least some of it. Understanding the causes, effects, and intricacies of global warming is critical so that we can fight for the health of our planet.

Oil has a prominent and complex function in the current structure of our society. However, it poses a significant risk to the environment, and it may have an impact on it at multiple levels: air, water, soil, and, as a result, all living species on our planet. Pollution is the most common and dangerous result of oil and gas industry activities in this environment.

Petroleum refining is one of the world's major industries and an important aspect of the country's economy. Petroleum has a wide range of applications, and the petroleum industry's environmental impact is likewise broad. Communities in close proximity to refineries have become more concerned about potential environmental hazards.

  • Measures to Control Pollution
  • Environmental Hazards of Oil, Gas and Petroleum
  • Greenhouse Gas Emission
  • Toxic and Non-Toxic Pollutants
  • Fossil Fuel Extraction
33. Fluid Mechanics and Multi-Phase Flow

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics that studies how fluids react to forces applied to them. It's a field of classical physics with important applications in chemical engineering, hydraulics and aeronautics, meteorology, and zoology. Fluid dynamics is investigated both theoretically and practically, using mathematical and physical interpretations of the results. Petroleum engineers must have a sound understanding of fluid mechanics. Drilling, well completion, production technologies, transportation, and refining are just a few of the areas where it's used.

A multiphase flow is one in which there are multiple phases (e.g., gas, solid, and liquid). In industry, such flows are ubiquitous. These phases can be made up of only one chemical component (for example, water flow and water vapor), or they can be made up of numerous separate chemical components (e.g. flow of oil and water).

  • Flow Configurations
  • Two-Phase Flows
  • Gas-Liquid Flow
  • Gas-Solid Flow
  • Liquid-Liquid Flow
  • Liquid-Solid Flow
35. Case Studies

A case study is a detailed examination of a single person, organization, or event. A case study examines practically every aspect of a subject’s background in order to find patterns and reasons for behavior. A case study is a type of research approach that is most commonly used in the social and life sciences. Case study research does not have a single definition. However, to put it plainly ‘A case study is an in-depth investigation of a person, a group of people, or a unit with the goal of generalizing across multiple units.’

  • Case reports
2. Petroleum Engineering

Energy is vital; it powers everything from our cellphones to our automobiles to our homes, raising our standard of living. Petroleum engineering is a mix of creativity, exploration, and growth. This major provides the foundation for all other professions to carry out their duties properly. Supercomputers are used by petroleum engineers to analyze exploration data and simulate reservoir dynamics, as well as to automate oilfield production and drilling activities. Petroleum engineers face numerous difficulties and opportunities in the future. To recover hydrocarbons from oil shale and offshore oil and gas areas, they must develop and deploy innovative technology. They must also develop innovative strategies to retrieve oil that has been left in the ground after standard production techniques have been used.

  • Reservoir Engineering
  • Reservoir Simulation
  • Rock Mechanics
  • Petrophysics
  • Petrochemistry
4. Process Engineering

Process engineering is a branch of engineering concerned with the design and optimization of biological and chemical processes. It turns customer requirements into high-value components that are then delivered to the next stage of the supply chain. Process Engineering is a method of determining the effects of chemical transformations in a substance that is repeated on a large scale. It's usually used in bulk product operations including petroleum refining, water purification, and synthesis penicillin production. A process engineer is in charge of the equipment, systems, and processes utilized in a manufacturing facility to convert raw materials into finished goods.

  • Process Innovation
  • Down Streaming Integration
  • Process Control
6. Geophysics: Modeling, Imaging, Interpretation and Processing

Geophysics is the study of the solid and molten Earth utilizing physical concepts that allow large-scale investigations and access to the deep Earth that would otherwise be unreachable. Measurement, analysis, and interpretation of physical fields at the surface for non-invasive exploration of subterranean conditions on the Earth. Geophysics is the study of the Earth while applying the physics concepts. It is concerned with the movement of the Earth's crust as well as the temperatures of its interior. Geophysics was only acknowledged as a separate discipline in the nineteenth century, but its roots go back to antiquity. Geophysical research has been tremendously valuable in giving evidence to support the idea of plate tectonics.

  • Geological Mapping
  • Geohazards
  • Geomagnetic Field and Geomagnetism
  • Hydrological Problems
  • Soil and Rock Physics
8. Geology, Exploration and Field Management

Exploration's role is to give the knowledge needed to exploit the best opportunities in the locations chosen, as well as to supervise research operations on the blocks obtained. Geological exploration is stated as the process of identifying a commercially viable mineral resource with the goal of doing so within the feasible amount of time whilst being inexpensive. Technology has largely driven modern mineral discovery due to the evolution of exploration technology over the last century, as well as the emerging exploration challenges. Exploration of natural resources is costly and dangerous. However, it brings with it new challenges and opportunities. Before spudding an exploration well, an oil company may work on a prospective location for several years, studying the geological history of the area and quantifying the possibility of hydrocarbons being present.

  • Geological Terrain Selection
  • State-Of-The-Art Exploration Technology
  • Optical Petrology
  • Geologic Maps
  • Geochronological and Petrogenetic Data

Risk Associated with Exploration

10. Fuel Chemistry, Technology & Processing

Any chemical with stored energy is mentioned as a fuel. Hydrocarbons with minimal impurities comprise the majority of fossil fuels. They get their name from the decomposed and petrified remains of flora and animals that existed millions of years ago.

Fuel cell research and technology has advanced rapidly in recent years, as it is expected to be an efficient technique of converting chemical energy from hydrogen-rich molecules to electrical energy. Although Sir William Grove used a fuel cell to demonstrate direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy in 1839, it was not until the middle of the twentieth century that Bacon's pioneering work led to the use of fuel cells in space missions.

Fuel processing is defined as the process of converting raw fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas which will be directly supplied into a cell stack. In the last ten years, research into fuel processing for fuel has exploded.

  • Conditioning, Conversion and Purification of Fuel
  • Steps Involved in Fuel Processing
  • Fuel Chemical Analysis
  • Calorific Value of Fuel
12. Reservoir Characterization, Modeling, Management and Evaluation

A reservoir model that includes all of the properties of the reservoir that are relevant to its potential to store and generate hydrocarbons. Reservoir characterization models are used to simulate the behavior of the fluids within the reservoir under a variety of conditions and to determine the most efficient production procedures. Reservoir characterization is an important step in the upstream industry as it allows companies to get the most out of their crude oil reserves.

A "reservoir model" is a mathematical description of a specific volume of rock that includes all of the reservoir's "characteristics." It can be thought of as a three-dimensional model of a single reservoir or, in some situations, an oil/gas field.

Reservoir management is commonly characterized as using resources to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from a reservoir while lowering capital and operating costs. It is based on the application of human, technological, and financial resources to maximize profits from a reservoir. Reservoir management must be viewed as a dynamic process aimed at detecting the uncertainties affecting future field behavior and attempting to mitigate their influence by maximizing field performance through the application of integrated, interdisciplinary technologies in a systematic manner.

Reservoir evaluation is a quantitative tool for identifying reservoirs and describing heterogeneity. Reservoir evaluation aims to subjectively and quantitatively evaluate the spatial distribution characteristics of shale reservoirs, as well as to simulate the storage and production status of gas in shale.

  • Data Collection and Management
  • Seismic Processing and Interpretation
  • Economic Optimization of Oil and Gas Recovery
  • 3D Structural Model
  • Stratigraphic Model
  • Facies Model
  • Petrophysical Model
  • Volumetrics
14. Management and Development of Unconventional Resources

Because oil and natural gas trapped in less permeable rocks cannot be explored, exploited, or produced using conventional methods, they are referred to as unconventional resources. Unconventional resources are resources, such as oil or natural gas, that do not exist in conventional formations and require specialized extraction or production processes to extract the fuel. Hydraulic fracturing, often known as fracking or fracing, is a technique for extracting natural gas from low-permeability subterranean rocks like shale and tight sandstone. Specific development technologies are required to exploit the many forms of unconventional gas that are diverse in occurrence, geological conditions, and development rules. They can only be developed for as long as they can be removed from the ground safely and affordably. To ensure sustainable development, it is now vital to manage unconventional resources.

  • Shale Gas and Its Development
  • Tight Gas and Its Development
  • Multi-Layer Fracturing
  • Volume Fracturing
16. Enhanced Oil & Gas Recovery

Primary, secondary, and tertiary oil production are the three stages of oil production (also known as Enhanced Oil Recovery) (EOR). Thermal, chemical, and fluid phase behaviors effects are used in EOR processes to diminish or remove capillary forces that trap oil within pores, thin the oil or otherwise improve its mobility, and change the mobility of the displacing fluids. Enhanced oil recovery is a prominent branch of petroleum engineering that deals with applying physics to improve the oil recovery of petroleum reservoirs using various strategies. Enhanced oil recovery entails injecting things into the reservoir that aren't normally there, such as CO2, steam, or chemicals. After initial production or waterflooding, EOR can begin.

  • Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)
  • Chemically Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • Primary, Secondary, And Tertiary Oil Production
18. Oil Refining

Oil refining is any post-extraction procedure used to obtain high-quality oil for a variety of applications. Phosphatides, tocopherols, sterols, free fatty acids, gummy compounds, color bodies, hydrocarbons, ketones, and aldehydes are all found in crude oil. The refining process removes these contaminants. Many thermodynamic processes, such as mass and heat transit phenomena, are involved in oil refining, and a food engineer or chemical engineer can assist in improving oil quality and processing efficiency. Although many integrated oil companies would perform both extraction and refining services, refining is considered as a downstream operation of the oil and gas industry. The capacity of major refineries to process hundreds of thousands of barrels of crude oil per day. The refining process is known as the "downstream" sector in the industry, whereas raw crude oil production is known as the "upstream" sector.

  • Crude Oil Up-Stream Process
  • Downstream Processing of Oil
20. Fracking and Catalytic Cracking

Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is a technique for extracting gas and oil from shale rock. Drilling down into the soil before directing a high-pressure water mixture at the rock to release the gas inside is known as fracking. The high-pressure combination fractures the rock, which is referred to as fracking. The operation can be carried either vertically or horizontally to the rock layer, which can be used to construct new pathways for gas escape or to extend existing channels.

Catalytic cracking reduces the number of residuals and increases the quality and quantity of lighter, more desired products by breaking complex hydrocarbons into simpler molecules. Catalytic cracking is analogous to thermal cracking, with the exception that catalysts help convert heavy molecules into lighter products. In the oil industry, catalytic cracking is a process in which petroleum vapor flows through a low-density catalyst bed, causing the heavier fractions to ‘crack,' resulting in lighter, more valuable products. They're utilized to make polyolefins on a huge scale in the petrochemicals industry.

  • Fluid Catalytic Cracking
  • Hydrocarbon Cracking
  • Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC)
  • Hydraulic Fracturing
22. Exploration Methods and Production

A variety of geophysical techniques are utilized to learn more about what is beneath the surface. The most popular technique is seismic imaging, which involves measuring variations in the Earth's gravity and magnetic field. A company that specializes in exploration and production (E&P) is part of the oil and gas industry. Exploration and production, often known as oil and gas exploration and extraction, is the first stage of energy production. Oil and gas exploration refers to the techniques and technologies used to locate potential drilling and extraction sites for oil and gas. Surface indicators such as natural oil seeps were used by early oil and gas explorers, but advances in science and technology have made oil and gas exploration more efficient. Geological surveys are carried out in a variety of ways, ranging from subsurface testing for onshore exploration to seismic imaging for offshore exploration.

  • Geophysical surveys
  • Remote Sensing and Wildcatting
24. Nano-Solutions, Smart Wells and Artificial Lifts

Nanotechnology is defined as a new technique for fabricating useful materials, systems, and devices with nanoscale materials, as well as new phenomena and behaviors at the nanoscale (1–100 nanometers). Adding specific Nanoparticles (NPs) to injection solutions can help enhance oil recovery significantly. In the recent decade, nanomaterials have been used as new EOR approaches to solve residual oil problems in heavy and semi-heavy oil reservoirs

Advanced wells with sensors and valves installed downhole to enable for easy monitoring and regulation are referred to as "smart" or "intelligent" wells. The valves are controlled remotely based on the sensors' detection of circumstances. Reservoir management is aided by smart wells. The most difficult aspect of smart wells is maximizing their efficiency. Smart wells are a promising new technology that has a high success rate.

Artificial lift is a technique used on oil wells to raise reservoir pressure and assist oil to rise to the surface. Artificial lift is used to recover greater output when the reservoir's inherent drive energy is insufficient to push the oil to the surface.

  • Improving Oil Recovery with Nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles as Additives
  • Rock Wettability
  • Nanosensors
  • Beam Pumping
  • Hydraulic Pumping
  • Electric Submersible Pump Systems                            
  • Smart Wells in Complex Reservoirs
  • Realistic Optimal Control Strategies
26. Equipment-Manufacturing Technology

Manufacturing technology refers to a variety of current scientific, manufacturing, and engineering approaches that aid in industrial production and diverse manufacturing processes. The platform for the functioning of unit processes is manufacturing equipment. For the manufacture of high-quality, cost-effective products, properly designed equipment is needed. Equipment design is the widest of the six enabling technologies since it is the vehicle through which all of the other enabling technologies are implemented. In a given economy, the processing equipment industries perform a distinctive function. They offer the tools for all of the economy's other manufacturing sectors.

  • Equipment Design
  • Operations Management
  • Advanced Equipment
28. Risk Assessment, Challenges and Management

Risk assessment is a crucial management technique for safeguarding worker health and safety (and others). A risk assessment is defined as a systematic process of detecting hazards and analyzing any related risks in the workplace, followed by the implementation of feasible control measures to eliminate or decrease those hazards.

The process of discovering, assessing, and controlling risks is known as risk management. Financial uncertainties, legal liabilities, strategic management failures, accidents, and natural disasters are only some of the hazards or risks that could arise. Effective risk management entails aiming to influence future events as much as possible by acting proactively rather than reactively.

The importance of challenge in risk management is that it aids in ensuring the robustness of the process and thought, as well as identifying any faults or risks in the process or thought.

  • Evaluation and Assessment of Risk
  • Identifying and Prioritizing Risks
  • Controlling risks and reviewing controls
30. Data Analytics for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

One of the most important components is data from the oil and gas industry. Data is likewise crude. It's valuable, but it can't be used if it's not purified. Every day, most organizations deal with a large volume of data. They evaluate them and try to come up with new solutions. Big Data analytics has piqued the interest of the oil and gas industry. A successful oil company will forecast potential information promptly and maintain costs low in order to achieve success without losing any discrepancy in the data set's appraisal. The quality of the data and an insight of the problem's complexity are two more difficult aspects to overcome when using Big Data.

  • Structured, Unstructured & Semi-Structured Data
  • Big Data Analytics
32. Thermodynamics and Phase Behavior

The complicated interaction between physically distinct, separable sections of matter termed phases that are in contact with each other is described by phase behavior. Solids, liquids, and vapors are the most common phases. In many petroleum applications, phase behavior is critical. Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its changes, which is crucial to understanding phase behavior. We can follow the energy changes that occur during phase transitions and anticipate the result of a process using thermodynamics. The goal of phase-equilibrium thermodynamics is to find properties like temperature, pressure, and phase compositions that emerge once all potential for further change has disappeared.

  • Compositional Simulation
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • Environmental Cleanup
  • Geochemical Behavior
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Multiphase Flow in Wellbores and Pipes
  • Wellbore Stability
34. Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is the process of incorporating digital technologies to transform conventional and non-digital business processes and services, or to create new ones, in order to meet evolving market and customer expectations, radically altering how businesses are managed and operated, as well as how value is delivered to customers. Industry is adapting technology to alter its operational landscape and reap the benefits of enhanced productivity, efficiency, and cost savings. The oil and gas business are no stranger to this, and it is on its way to becoming digitally mature. A strategic roadmap could benefit oil and gas industries in evaluating each operation and identifying digital leaps that will help them achieve specific business goals.

  • Digital Strategy in Oil & Gas
  • Artificial Intelligence in Oil, Gas & Petroleum
  • Big Data Analytics
36. Oil & Gas Legal Issues

An "issue" is a point in a litigation that is disputed by the parties. A legal issue can also refer to a collection of securities offered for sale or a person's lineal descendants. A dispute of law, rather than being a question of fact, is a question of how a law is applied. A legal issue, also known as a legal question, is a legal matter that forms the basis of a case. It necessitates a court judgement. It can also apply to a situation in which the evidence is clear and the decision is determined by the court's interpretation of the law.

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